The total energy consumption in Uganda is estimated at over 5 million tons of oil of which 93% is derived from biomass (wood/ charcoal and agricultural residue); electricity and oil products constitute 7%. Uganda generates its own electric power from Nalubaale, Bujjagali, Kilembe, Mpanga, Nyangaki, Bugoye hydropower stations, and thermal stations.
The energy consumption pattern shows that residential related activities account for 70.3 % of total use. The rest is accounted for by commercial use (13.6 %), Industrial use (10.7%), transport use (5%) and other uses (0.4%). Most of the energy consumed for residential activities is woody biomass energy, which cannot be used in industries in its raw form. The low level of access to electricity energy, high tariff and low generation capacity explains why the majority of Ugandans use woody biomass energy as a source of fuel.
Although, the consumption of electricity per capita is low, Uganda has an estimated hydropower potential of (over 4,500MW), biomass co-generation (1,650 MW), geothermal (450MW), peat power (800MW), high solar power and fossil fuel thermal potential as well as a high nuclear energy potential.
Exploitation of these potentials will massively reduce the deficit with time. Uganda exports some of the generated power to neighbouring Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda. The total exports to these three countries are expected to be more than 180MW in the near future.
Energy sources available in Uganda include fuel wood, charcoal, bagasse, petroleum products and electricity (hydro and thermal).
The contribution of forestry to national energy demands is mostly expressed through woody biomass use by households and institutions for heating purposes.
Petroleum products include Premium Motor Spirit(PMS), Automotive Gas Oil (AGO), Bulk Illuminating Kerosene (BIK), Aviation Fuel, Fuel Oil (FO) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). All these petroleum products are imported. Petroleum is also used to generate thermal energy.
There are a number of sites identified in western Uganda with potential for generation of geothermal energy. These include; Katwe-Kikorongo, Burunga and Kibiro in the Albertine Graben in western Uganda. However, these are yet to be exploited.
There are a number of sites in northern and north eastern as well as the central region of Uganda with potential for generation of wind energy.These include; Karamoja and Lake Victoria islands. However, these are yet to be exploited.
Uganda’s location astride the equator presents immense potential for generation of solar energy.
This is the major source of energy in Uganda. It is mainly used for industrial and commercial purposes. The total installed capacity of electric power plants
that feed into the national grid increased by 5.6% from 539 Mega Watts (MW) in 2010 to 569MW in 2011following the commissioning of the Bujagali Hydro power project in 2012, the capacity now stands at 819 MW.
For More Information Visit; Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development